Since ancient times, roses have been used medicinally, nutritionally, and as source of perfume.The ancient Greeks, Romans and Phoenicians considered large public rose gardens to be as important as croplands such as orchards & wheat field.
Rose perfumes are made from rose oil, also called attar of roses, which is mixture of volatile essential oils obtained by steam-distilling the crushed petals of roses. Rose water is by-product of this process.
The cultivation of various fragrant flowers for obtaining perfumes, including rose water, may date back to Sassanid Persia, where it was known as golāb (Middle Persia گلاب), from gul (rose) and ab (water). The process of creating rose water through steam distillation was refined by Persian and Arab chemists in the medieval Islamic world which led to more efficient and economic uses for perfumery industries.